Stephen V. Banks
Thomas C. Danisi
John C. Jackson
Tim V. Tanner
E. Rick Williams
Dr. John L. Allen
Bradley C. Bailey
Nathan E. Bender
Dr. S. Matthew DeSpain
Brenda D. Francis
Todd D. Glover
Dr. Kerry Oman
Dr. Mark Schreiter
Dr. Darby Stapp
Dr. Brad Tennant
Dale F. Topham
Dr. Fred Gowans
Sublette County Museum Board
Michael Klarén, Chairman
Sublette County Commissioners
Bill Cramer, Chairman
The forth issue of the Rocky Mountain Fur Trade Journal
is now complete and available for purchase onlien through
the trading post . We appreciate
all the authors that were willing to submit papers and give
this publication a chance. We also owe a debt of gratitude
to the peer reviewers who lent us their expertise and credibility.
Was Meriwether Lewis the Godfather of the Rocky Mountain
by Thomas C. Danisi and John C. Jackson
Going Indian! The Use of Leggings and
Breech Clout by the Euro-American Trapper
of the Rocky Mountains
by Clay Landry
Union Pass: A Mountain of Many Waters
by Stephen V. Banks
Painting the Rocky Mountain Fur Trade:
An Artist Creates On the Headwaters of
by Tim V. Tanner
Warren Ferris, the Hudsons Bay Company,
and the Rendezvous of 1834
by Scott Walker
Wheels to Rendezvous
by E. Rick Williams
Goggles in the Rocky Mountain West
by Alida Boorn
John C. Jackson and Thomas C. Danisi coauthored
the biography Meriwether Lewis, which is going into its
second printing. Jacksons new book on John McClallen,
By Honor and Right: How One Man Boldly Defined the Destiny
of a Nation, will be published in fall 2010. Thomas C. Danisi
is an independent researcher and writer who has published
articles on the fur trade. His particular interests are
early St. Louis history, Lewis and Clark, and James MacKays
1797 map of the Missouri River.
An avid researcher, Clay Landrys study and
writing on the material culture items used by the men of
the Rocky Mountain fur trade has resulted in numerous published
essays. A registered researcher with the Fur Trade Research
Center, Clay has presented papers on fur trade material
culture at the 1997, 2000 and 2006 Fur Trade Symposiums.
He has conducted demonstrations and seminars on mountaineer
clothing, food, horse gear and trade goods at various national
historic sites throughout the West. He has served as a Journal
reviewer and this is his third article for the publication.
Stephen V. Banks of Dubois, Wyoming is a lecturer
and re-enactor of the Rocky Mountain fur trade. Banks studied
western history at the University of Wyoming, has written
several articles and produced a web site for Wyomings
K-12 schools about this time period. Banks is a retired
IT consultant for the Dubois School District.
Tim V. Tanner was educated at Utah State University
and the California Art Institute, and embarked on a career
as an illustrator in 1989. His artwork has graced the pages
of national best-sellers and popular magazines. An avid
historian and fur trade re-enactor since the late 1970s,
Tanner is a member of the American Mountain Men, and a founding
member of the American Longrifle Association. He currently
chairs that organizations National Standing Committee
on Authenticity. Tanner is on the art faculty at Brigham
Young University/Idaho and makes his home in Pierres
Hole (Teton Valley), Idaho.
Scott Walker would like to thank the Hudson's Bay
Company Archives, Archives of Manitoba, and especially Archivist
Debra Moore, Head of Acquisition and Special Media, for
assistance with this article. Walker lives in Colorado where
he is a freelance writer and stay-at-home dad for his four-year-old
daughter. He volunteers at Fort Laramie National Historic
Site, where he interprets local fur trade history.
E. Rick Williams currently serves as an administrator
for Brigham Young University, and is a member of the American
Mountain Men. He has also participated in the Living History
Days presentations to school children in May at the Museum
of the Mountain Man.
Alida Boorn is an American History doctoral student
at Kansas State University. Her primary interests include
the history of Amerindians and the history of the fur trade
in North America. Alida has presented papers at the 2006
and 2007 Western History Association Conferences. She extends
special thanks to professors Craig Miner of Wichita State
University and Albert N. Hamscher of Kansas State University.
As a non-traditional blind student, Alida wishes to acknowledge
the logistical support her husband, Jim Boorn, provides.
He patiently assisted her in learning to use audio software
to perform her work.
Rich Aarstad has worked for the Montana Historical
Society since 2001. He served as the societys Lewis
and Clark Reference Historian through the bicentennial and
served for a short time as the Montana representative on
the David Thompson Bicentennials Committee. In 2007, Aarstad
co-chaired Beyond Borders and Boundaries: David Thompson
and the North American Fur Trade Symposium held in
Helena. Rich has had one article published on Montanas
fur trade in Montana, The Magazine of Western History. He
continues his research on Montanas fur trade, focusing
primarily on the period between 1807 and 1820.
Dr. John L. Allen is a well-known teacher, lecturer,
and author in the field of historical geography. A native
of Laramie, Wyoming, Dr. Allen is the author of numerous
books and articles, including Lewis and Clark and the Image
of the American Northwest and Jedediah Smith and the Fur
Traders of the American West. He was editor and primary
contributing author of the three-volume collection, North
American Exploration. Dr. Allen recently retired from his
position as Professor and Chair of Geography at the University
of Wyoming. His current research interests include the changing
landscape of the American West in the nineteenth century
and the Jeffersonian period Rocky Mountain fur trade explorations.
Bradley C. Bailey is a member of the American Mountain
Men and founding member of the Rocky Mountain Outfit party
(www.rockymountainoutfit.com). Bradley is an accomplished
brain tanner who spends much time putting the skills and
equipage of the mountaineers to the test as well as doing
public demonstrations. He resides near the source of the
Arkansas River in present day Buena Vista, Colorado.
Nathan E. Bender is a former Professor of the University
of Idaho Library special collections and archives. He has
built historic research collections at the Buffalo Bill
Historical Center, Montana State University, West Virginia
University, and the University of Oklahoma. Publishing on
western history, folklore, and American Indian studies in
a variety of research journals, he is currently an independent
scholar in Laramie, Wyoming. His article Perceptions
of a Mountain Man: John Jeremiah Liver-Eating
Johnston at Old trail Town, Cody, Wyoming, appeared
in RMFTJ Volume 1.
Allen Chronister is a retired attorney who is an
independent researcher with a lifelong interest in the history
and people of the American West. He maintains particular
interests in the history and ethnology of Native Americans
and the material culture of the fur trade.
Dr. S. Matthew DeSpain is a lecturer in the Native
American Studies program at the University of Oklahoma,
where he teaches a wide range of courses related to Native
American and western American history, government, and culture.
He directs publication of the Native American student journal
Native Matters and serves as editor of the Journal of Chickasaw
History and Culture. His current research focuses on cultural
collisions in the American West, masculine identity in the
West, and social constructs in the Far West fur trade. His
article The Superior Dignity of Such a Character:
Nineteenth-Century American Manhood and the Image of Kit
Carson, appeared in RMFTJ Volume 1.
Bruce Burnt Spoon Druliner has been
associated with the American Mountain Men since 1983. His
winter quarters are at his cabin on Palomar Mountain, where
he teaches outdoor education for the San Diego County Department
of Education. Druliner migrates north in the summer, living
in and conducting tours of the reconstructed Old Fort Benton
trading post in Montana.
Brenda D. Francis, MA, Brigham Young University,
was editor and co-author of The Fur Trade & Rendezvous
of the Green River Valley (Sublette County Historical Society,
2005). She currently works as an engineering manager for
a major software company.
Teton Todd D. Glover, BA, Brigham Young
University, recently retired after twenty-five years serving
in the military. He has participated in numerous living
history events and spends much of his time researching,
experimenting and recreating the lifestyle of the historic
Rocky Mountain based mountaineers of old. He is a Hiveranno
member of the American Mountain Men.
Gene Hickman has pursued historical interpretation
for many years, focusing on Lewis and Clark and the western
fur trade. In the service of western American history, Hickman
has worked with the Army Corps of Engineers, the National
Park Service, the U.S. Forest Service, Montana Fish, Wildlife
and Parks, and others. He has written numerous articles
related to Indian Sign Language, Lewis and Clark, and the
western fur trade, and is known as one of the best Indian
Sign Talkers around. Hickman is a Hiveranno in the American
Mountain Men and currently serves both as the Booshway for
the Manuel Lisa Party and the Brigade Booshway for Montana
and North Dakota.
Alex Miller is a member of the American Mountain
Men and is a frequent contributor to Muzzleloader Magazine.
He has published a wide variety of articles and short stories
related to the American fur trade. His article The
Yankee Pedlar: Introduction of Percussion Lock Firearms
into the Far West, appeared in RMFTJ Volume 1, and
he has served as a peer reviewer for the last three issues.
In his other life, he is a writing instructor at College
of the Siskiyous in northern California.
Mike Moore has published four nonfiction books and
over 130 articles on the early American West. He has appeared
on the History Channel and gives lectures on all aspects
of the historic West. Moore is a member of the Western Writers
of America and has been a staff writer for the last eleven
years for On The Trail magazine.
Dr. Kerry Oman received his doctorate from Southern
Methodist University. He is a two-time Spur Award winner
from the Western Writers of America for articles written
about the mountain men.
Gary Peterson and his wife Patty have lived and
worked in Buffalo, Wyoming for the past thirty years. Peterson
is an avid hunter, black powder enthusiast and student of
western history. The Big Horn Mountains and Powder River
country have provided him with a rich setting in which to
pursue these interests. Peterson has written for Muzzleloader
Magazine and We Proceeded On, the quarterly of the Lewis
and Clark Trail Heritage Foundation. His article Antonio
Montero and the Portuguese Houses: An Outpost on Powder
River, appeared in RMFTJ Volume 2.
Dean Rudy, a student of western history, is a member
of the American Mountain Men, and the creator of the Mountain
Men and the Fur Trade website (www.mtmen.org). He
holds degrees from Cornell University and the University
of Utah and currently lives in Park City, Utah.
Dr. Mark Schreiter spent much of his early life
in the Bighorn Mountains of Wyoming. He holds a Ph.D. in
history from the University of Idaho and specializes in
environmental and Native American history of the Pacific
Northwest. His fur trade studies focus on trappers
relationships with tribes of the upper Missouri. Schreiter
is professor of history and humanities and Chair of Academic
Affairs at the University of Alaska/Kodiak College, as well
as a budding documentary filmmaker.
Dr. Darby Stapp has spent thirty years studying
the history and archaeology of the Pacific Northwest. His
M.A. research at the University of Idaho focused on the
early sea-based fur trade and the copper items traded to
local populations. His Ph.D. research at the University
of Pennsylvania focused on the Chinese who lived and mined
placer gold in northern Idaho. For the last twenty years,
Stapp has worked on understanding and protecting important
cultural and historic resources at the Hanford Reach National
Monument, Mid-Columbia River, in Washington State. Having
recently retired from this job, he has established Northwest
Anthropology LLC to conduct cultural resource impact studies
for tribes and agencies in Washington, Oregon, and Idaho.
Dr. Brad Tennant is an Associate Professor of History
at Presentation College in Aberdeen, South Dakota. Tennant
is an active researcher, writer, and presenter on a variety
of topics related to the northern plains and the American
West. He currently serves as the president of the Board
of Trustees for the South Dakota State Historical Society.
His article Fame Over Misfortune: La Verendrye and
the Opening of the Western Fur Trade appeared in RMFTJ
Volume 1; To Preserve Peace on the Frontiers:
Federal Regulation and the Fur Trade was published
in Volume 2.
Dale F. Topham, a native of Orem, Utah, received
his B.A. and M.A. degrees from Brigham Young University.
He is presently a doctoral candidate in American History
at Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas. His article
Rocky Mountain Rivalry: The Hudsons Bay Companys
Involvement in the American Fur Trade Rendezvous System
appeared in RMFTJ Volume 1.
Jack Tykal, a lifetime Westerner, has lived in Utah
since 1982. He spent two years in the U.S. Army, seven in
banking, and more than twenty years working for the FBI.
Jack retired and is now a writer. He has published several
books and articles on western history, including Etienne
Provost: Man of the Mountains; Taos to St. Louis:
The Journey of Mariá Rosa Villalpando in the
New Mexico Historical Review; and Journal of an Expedition
to the Grand Prairies of the Missouri, 1840.
Dave Vlcek has worked as a professional archaeologist
in southwestern Wyoming for over thirty years. Mr. Vlceks
specialties are prehistoric settlement patterns of the upper
Green River Basin, remote sensing applications in archaeology,
aspects of the fur trade (he organized the archaeological
investigations of the 1832 Fort Bonneville site) and the
national Historic Trail system in western Wyoming. Vlcek
also lectures on aspects of southwestern Wyomings
fascinating history and archaeology to school groups, to
residents of Sublette County and to his professional peers
on a regular basis.
David Wright has earned countless awards for his
highly acclaimed art, which captures memorable moments in
American history. Professionally trained and with advanced
study in Europe, Wright has been painting for more than
forty years. His scholarship and historical sensitivities
are evident in his works on the American frontier, settlement,
and Civil War. Wrights paintings have been featured
in television documentaries and as covers and illustrations
for numerous books and magazines. An avid historian, he
has written for various publications. Wright has appeared
on television as a historical consultant and served as Art
Director for Native Sun Productions award-winning
film Daniel Boone and the Westward Movement. He also provided
art direction for the History Channel film: First Invasion
- The War of 1812, for which he received a Prime Time Emmy
Editorial Team and Production
Jim Hardee, Editor, graduated from the University
of the Pacific, Stockton, California. He has served as Director
of the Fur Trade Research Center since 1998. He is the Museum
Factor for the American Mountain Men Association and is
the former president of the Jedediah Smith Society.
Fred R. Gowans, Editor Emeritus, PhD, professor
emeritus of Western American history, Brigham Young University,
is the Historian in Residence of the Museum of the Mountain
Clint Gilchrist, Managing Editor, is a member of
the Board of Directors for the Musuem of the Mountain Man
and Sublette County Historical Society.
Laurie Hartwig, Director, BS, University
of Wisconsin-Madison, is the Director of the Sublette County
Historical Society and the Museum of the Mountain Man.
Sue Sommers of Sommers Studio - layout, design and
Angie Thomas - graphics acquisition. Museum of the
Mountain Man and Sublette County Historical Society.
Millie Pape, Business Manager for Museum of the
Mountain Man and Sublette County Historical Society.
The Sublette County Historical Society would like to thank
the Sublette County Museum Board and the Sublette County
Commission for providing the funding to make this publication
Sublette County Museum Board
Michael Klarén, Chairman
Sublette County Commissioners
Bill Cramer, Chairman
For more information on the Journal, download the supporting
documents linked on the side bar or contact the Museum of
the Mountain Man, PO Box 909, Pinedale, Wyoming 82941 -
- Phone: 877-686-6266 - Fax: 307-367-6768